Soziologische Perspektiven auf die Corona-Krise –

Transkript: Michael Neuber and Beth Gharrity Gardner: How do social movements move in pandemic contexts? Examining climate justice mobilizations in times of COVID-19

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Charlotte Jöster-Morisse
Hello and welcome to the latest episode of our podcast about sociological perspective on the corona crisis my name is charlotte
i'm student assistant at the pizza boy learn social science center and call organizer of the statutory colloquial
on march tenth two thousand twenty one miguel nobody beth garrity gardner gave lecture,
what the title of how to social movements move in pandemic contacts examining climate justice mobilization and times of covid19.
The presentation address the question of how movement mobilization has shifted in the current pandemic in order to explore this issue,
the study focus on the fridays for future climate movement as an imperial case,
michelle beth garrity gardner contact service at the global climate strikes in two thousand nineteen and two thousand twenty in berlin and collected time series data,
and their talk the present key findings on changes in the social composition motives and attitudes of protest participants
make sure about visiting scholar at the department of social movements technology conflict a technical university berlin in his word he focuses on the study of cultural practices of social movements,
play tequila focus on environmental movements and popular mobilization,
that's garrity gardner is a sociologist at home university berlin she works out too much section of politics protests and media
harry search examines the institutional processes to which meanings a produce and contested,
now please enjoy mika neva end beth garrity gardener's lecturer.
Beth Gharrity Gardner
Today's top is using the case of fridays for future,
global climate strike mobilization in berlin to exam in this question of how social movements are moving on mobilizing and pandemic contacts on this relies on research,
the dr whoever on my cellphone been conducting on fridays for future global climate strike.
Street mobilization s on starting in two thousand nineteen.
So today's top presents and preliminary findings on what.
What happens on weekend pair the two most temporarily proximate global climate strikes that took place before the sunset of the pandemic,
with a global climate strike that took place in the streets after the sunset of the covid19 pandemic on september twentieth of two thousand twenty.
For those of you that aren't that familiar with fridays for future movement on just wanna highlight a few points to get some background.
The alarm number of youth lagoon global climate movements emerged over twenty eighteen.
Right so display only emerging in two thousand eighteen this movements manastra initiate hundreds of protests actions around the world in two thousand nineteen.
End these new climate campaigns contributed momentum to the global environmental justice movement that hadn't been seen since two thousand fourteen or twenty fifteen peaks in mobilization.
And also the campaign's not included fridays for future but others like extinction rebellion in the sunrise is in the us fridays for future movement.
International campaign kind of stands out i'm on one hand,
what begin with a single sixteen years june credit turn burg protesting in front of the swedish parliament in twenty eighteen quickly evolve into a multi generational cross national protest movement year later,
greta and fridays for future became from liar players in the global climate justice movement as weekly students strikes under the banner of fridays for future proliferated across european cities and expanded into four globally coordinated,
is action or global climate strikes so these were in march may september in november of two thousand nineteen.
After the onset of the pandemic two additional global climate strikes where someone initiate in one,
which was only online digital strike to coincide with earth day in april of two thousand twenty and then on september twenty fifth two thousand twenty,
the worst some mobilization in the street in some cities so in berlin in vienna bernard everywhere of course.
So we just have a figure that show some of the estimated numbers of participants at these different events globally.
End in germany over the period in which they begin so from march until the most recent september street demonstration.
We can see that the movement built-up tits p in september twenty nineteen always for climax mobilization,
we're over seven million people in one hundred sixty three countries church the streets demanding immediate political action on climate change.
Right and then we have,
how much do you know almost exactly a year after that third global climate strike in the largest mobilization another physical strike in the streets dampened by the krono pandemic.
Stop clearly along with many other movements scholars were interested in the potential consequences of the pandemic on protest mobilization and in this case global climate strike street.
We know that the virus along with restrictions designed to prevent the spread of disease shift attention right by displacing high profile issues on public in political agendas.
Including the ongoing climate prices.
Play also shifted collective routines by channeling people away from gatherings of any sort including street protests.
Create a new insomnia enrique animating the contentious nas of the street protests which is modern machines unbeyond was really become the quintessential political performance,
the twentieth century and one central to the fridays for future global climate justice movement,
the pandemic raises number of questions about how the mobilization potential of this movement make a change on the one,
we have exacerbate son of existing grievances and the generation of new ones.
Combine with new hurdles costs risk to take to join in in person collective action.
Super glue expect the there's an ultra to rain in a sort of ultra q calculus for protest participation.
Right so that g c s other global climate strike event after the sunset of the pandemic races and number of questions about how the movement activate,
adapted to this dramatically ultra circumstances and will we know but organizers of the global climate strike and pandemics circumstances ultra their practices.
To accommodate these restrictions we don't know the extent to which the profile of participants may have changed.
Did the demographic composition the attitude in the political engagement profile of fridays for future protesters shift in notable ways.
Start considering these features were thinking about the demographic composition what you know tennis to be for the basis of a protest weather people are.
Dial graphically available weather not they have,
weather not the alien with other features of the movement on and weather sings nightshift when you have a pandemic right that are some people are more risk than others.
We also explore shift and add a toots and terms of grievances which can be defined as indignation about the way at forty is or treating social and political problems like the climate crisis or,
set a panoramic.
Also efficacy perceptions in motives which art efficacy being idea that believe that in action or collective action like protests,
will be affected in reaching some desired gold makes it more likely that people will engage in activism.
Are these are furious and concepts from social movements scholarship and beyond grievances and eva cassidy,
we also explorer some other collective and select having instead of for participating in protests that it been highlighted by scholars such as expressing views or solidarity with a cause,
pressuring politicians erasing public awareness emotions which can also stimulate participation amplifier existing motivations for protesting.
End finally we explore political engagement so these are people's experience with protesting in the past,
never traditional engagements more traditional political activities like signing a petition or contacting a politician and their bed civil society groups are there memberships instead of associations.
Reproach the addressing these questions rest on the stylish method of crowd service or protests service,
create a new list approach makes it possible to understand process protester heater janeiro in terms of demographics attitude political engagement more.
So this approaches,
drawn from connected protests conceptualizing contest station and it's one that was minimally adopted already in twenty nineteen for cross national collaboration on fridays for future global climate strikes and twenty nineteen.
Of course we had to adopt this to the pandemic contacts when we distributed the surface engagement data collection,
add the twenty twenty global climate strike but we're gonna go through or dating methods quite quickly so that we can,
get to the finding so we have questions feel free to ask her in the queue this method.
Has numerous ways of dealing with problems representative miss right trying to make sure that the sampler the people that we get responding to the survey representative of the entire grouper population of protesters add an event.
So number techniques or built into the design when it comes to distributing the surface at factual protest event as well as assessing none response by,
after the event.
Are surfaces sample in berlin it's pretty small world just looking at the world in this case because we have this overtime,
this opportunity look at this one location overtime,
i'm always know that those under fourteen years of age or underrepresented results for legal and ethical reasons i'm r session's of no response by and our high response rate make a pretty confident,
that are served data is fairly representative so again.
Really highlighting the shh were there shifts that we observe a new features of mobilization potential for social movements.
In september compared to the pre pandemic protests of twenty nineteen overall,
in terms of the composition we found no real significant changes in the balance gender distribution high education levels middle to upper class identification and leftwing ideological affiliation,
afraid is for future protesters so just to give an example gender here we can see the the general distribution remained.
Fairley balance across at each of the events that we serve it.
Play contrast with the most substantial demographic shift in the profile of participants right we can see here.
There's a departure in two thousand twenty from the previous two events anyways getting a little bit closer to the first global climate strike on march of two thousand nineteen.
Take another angel on this we can see.
Set a much larger share or a majority share protesters fall into the light group of twenty to thirty five.
Right we can't understand this is suggesting indicating maybe that the height and risk pose by the virus older people and those aware of having pre existing health conditions is likely to replay the key role,
and the dominoes a participant under thirty five years of age or the parcels rejuvenation of the global climate strike protester profile.
What follows we distinguish between us those fourteen to twenty five years old and adults people twenty six years older just to explore some of the ways in which they might be differences between younger and older generations of protesters.
Turning to gryffin says.
Will you generally examined number of measures based on survey items and here we highlight those for institutional trust or political citizen.
Aldo fridays for future protesters continue to look to scientific experts environmental groups more than politicians.
Start learn more than company is the most disliked sort of institutions and society.
The political cynicism towards national governing institutions decreased at the twenty twenty global climate strikes so what is prior to the pandemic,
the majority of protesters were bubblin or distrust any national government and promises politicians after words we to see,
play substantial increases and trust national government and parliament.
We also see a bit of lost confidence in the european union and other international institutions like the united nations so.
Think that part of this is supported by the fact that both age corporate express overwhelming support of official measures to prevent the spread of covid19 another research finding suggesting that people trust and garmin institutions,
did increase without kobe was hamilton countries like germany that were fairly successful on reducing the spread of infection after the first wave.
In terms of fkj casiio in motivations for protesting right this is the people must believe that the participation in protests can help to redress their concerns.
And here we find the perceptions of political efficacy seem to be a bit higher it's not jarring but there is a shift.
One minus adult across the different events we didn't find respondents consistantly felt.
More effective collectively the individually so show the one for the idea organized groups of citizens and have a lot of impact on public policy,
i'm unreal also find that agreement on these items was highest at the pandemic right with over eighty seven percent of both use an adult a green with the statement that organize groups can have a lot of impact.
What i said earlier efficacious not the only path way to participation,
i'm in line with africa series exam in measures about what motivated participation on five seven motivation options we observe increases at the september twenty twenty global climate strike.
Collective and send us a pressuring politicians and raising awareness constantly ranked four most among protester motivations but in two thousand twenty raising public awareness had the greatest increase,
which may reflect the topic of the corona pandemic encroaching on the priority of the climate crisis.
Also in line with greater efficacy perceptions we found on march decline in the feeling of powerlessness.
Are the emotional response of powerlessness at the twenty twenty global climate strike.
Finally we look different forms of political engagement in here we just highlights protests participation in the past twelve months so overall response for september twenty twenty seventh the greatest.
Add greater protest experience a moring bed and various types of local h that participants any of the previously served protests events in berlin.
Can see hear that less than ten percent of the demonstrators use an adult right where the first climate strike.
We also know that less than thirty percent with their first global climate strike.
I'm this figure shows at the number first timer decreased among use an adult each event but the twenty twenty pandemic context strike you three sponsor even more experience there adult counterparts.
Will update,
other forms of political participation such a signing up a chicken republic letter or donating money to a political organization these types of activities were also more common among protesters at the twenty twenty global climate strikes.
Protesters at the twenty twenty stripper also somewhere more organizational in bed not over all right will we look at adults in twenty november twenty nineteen vs adults on september twenty twenty.
People are slightly their have more membership if any type but active memberships increase.
Should we extend of there being sort of a flip,
ratio active to pass a membership compared to the previous events in this pattern was echo for number of other political memberships groups such as humanitarian anti racist and global justice organizations.
Start a conclude my overly long presentation.
Find things are generally younger demographic composition decreases in political cynicism towards national government strengthen.
Africa step receptions.
Add motives right stronger perceptions of collective action of casiio or the effectiveness of collective action higher motivations especially raising public awareness and decrease feelings a powerlessness in terms of the motions.
Political engagement
profile of processor is also more intense there was a great intensity of prior pop protest experience on as well as a greer intensity of traditional political behavior as well as people being more active,
environmental organizations and a number of other political advocacy groups.
Notably women look only at repeat fridays for future protesters are participants egypt want that kind of more active and their counterparts,
between the pre and post pandemic global climate strikes results on attitudes remain consistent.
Right that's not that more actively engaged fridays for future protesters are left cynical but it seems that they made book that they became less than whole.
So we're still unpacking some of this puzzle and trying to be a bit more certain about causation dynamics on because it is in a panel survey so we're trying to do we can't approximate a panel survey to unpack these results further.
Can we have other puzzle to keep examining interested time i'm gonna leave it there thank you.
Charlotte Jöster-Morisse
Thank you so much for your presentation was a very interesting and i opening and i would like to start with a question directly on regarding your conclusion he said in general.
I disappear felt more powerful learn more active and also trusted
the german government more in the in times of the pentatonix in two thousand twenty,
how do you explain this is this directly related to the endemic situation.
Beth Gharrity Gardner
I definitely think that there is little trust in jesus sting that the government's response to curtailing the spread of the disease and it's success and countries like germany austria,
particular indicate that there is a relationship between that success and start of soundtrack.
End national government government institutions and fridays for future's never been totally anti a leap,
or antigovernment their targeting very clearly government institutions and politicians to take very specific actions.
When it comes to policy so i do think that.
When protesters soul or participants in people interested in a climate crisis saw politicians making sure drastic actions in order to cook.
Control the spread of the virus it was seen as a chance for politicians to be more responsive to the climate justice movement as well.
When it comes to perceptions of africa and protests.
Add motivations i think that spose some people declining feeling a powerlessness maybe that they.
Did think that they can raise more awareness you know that's was the major motivation that increase.
Because of there being sort of,
i don't know only lol in a lot of the surf topics that coronas the only thing going on maybe it seemed like a gaping maybe also seems like they were ways in which to link the fridays for future mobilization and global climate strike,
what fight every crisis so slow going to do something already on the political agenda being the pandemic crisis.
Add dr norbert you wanna add.
Michael Neuber
Yeah obviously agree with you but i think there we have awesome indication that.
Protesters try to do autrey to set a counterpoint at two hours corona demonstrations
no which place this time the time and so
delete my supporting like the government trusting the government sensitivity
put the counterpoint to the political cynicism off koda demonstrators which which kind of like.
Putting highlights miss potter strongly suggest.
Charlotte Jöster-Morisse
Would you say that this might also play white trash in the european union that not really change.
Michael Neuber
I think the the trust in union was already on a really high level so we don't have to the motet spot it's not necessary significant change on a slide.
Beth Gharrity Gardner
Play scripps decline decline not yet increase.
Michael Neuber
What to do my statistic test test to verify results and disrespect.
Beth Gharrity Gardner
What el general adults swim like public perceptions in certain respective media accounts and discourse critical how the european union was organizing,
cross national travel and.
Also just at the international level but sometimes of the national level in different countries their often critiques are criticisms of unequal train when it came to restrictions implemented.
Charlotte Jöster-Morisse
Alright i would like to come back to the democratic data of participants because they was won,
digital strike and april twenty twenty all the others west street protests and one was digital strike was there a huge difference in demographic data for participants.
Michael Neuber
Set since i look little bitty digital strike answer that question so we don't really know
about to participants of the district because it was no a like reliable measurement of flex cooper dissipated it's possible basically mainly focus on a posting images online.
So you know which is interesting is that
every few people of the extras strike on september twenty two thousand actually participate in the digital spencer sotelo twenty percent around twenty percent,
so you have like what app do you have flooded different kind of people participating in both events.
Beth Gharrity Gardner
I think it was also interesting we found it older or nine so people over twenty five years of age.
Report of those at the twenty twenty global climate strike that said they were the participated in the digital climate strike and april we're over twenty five years bolt years old most of them.
What we like we said we're still kind of exploring this configuration of features.
Cross the events.
Charlotte Jöster-Morisse
How could you make a comparison to other protest movements than the fridays for future movement and yaz,
maybe say something about protest mobilization in general how this works forether protests movements during the pandemic.
Beth Gharrity Gardner
I don't know i'm it feel like a lot of the discussions about how protests,
rochester movements respond the pretender are such arm-chair arguments that i just i'm hesitant to we have data on fridays for future mobilization in germany things are starting to trina loud on some other cases,
what i am i don't know im in berlin about rushing to assessments due think that there is.
Variation when it comes to.
Political contacts and movements such as i do think this complied other climate justice movements they might try to mobilize in the streets when you still have pandemic restrictions on.
What i think it's still important to be cautious.
Is there is some kind of obvious point it's that also the pandemic surely dampened mobilization didn't.
Halt street protests right as we touch on the beginning the conventional.
Protests action right the street demonstration.
What's the convention alize at the end of the twentieth century but it's interesting to see with the pandemic contentious again.
I i'd like to hear some more empirical research before deciding how we might link this case other movement case examples.
Charlotte Jöster-Morisse
Display that you would like to have empirical reasons first
do you think that movements practices in general or for the future fridays for future
movement will some help change in the future maybe after some years after the pandemic do you think will go back to normal like was before
are you think that will be a certain impact.
Michael Neuber
I mean sorry but go ahead not here,
i would think they might be some diffusion of practices and james blake ending,
handling digital media and disconnect stuff so we know that's from previous research on.
Cancel and social movements on the move instead like digital on and online media or digital from the protests are less,
i have been blessed effective less frequented by
play protesters s. o. m. b. s to cnn
wait if there's time change going on but when you look at when you take the knowledge of the pasta i would think there they will be unicorn,
no what is asian going on after coronavirus is over did it maybe a slideshow towards more than twenty practice is that what you think of.
Beth Gharrity Gardner
Yes i think it's a difficult question to answer i'm in it definitely think that movements.
No developed types of action reflectors and being constrained.
Buy political circumstances on fandango contacts being forced to adopt and shift strategies is likely to be influential in the future on,
drop with maybe doing some more online forms of activism one kind of potential thing but also,
we kind of need to see how the pandemic dynamics play out i mean it definitely think you can think of like the citizen,
what was done at the twenty twenty climate strike in pandemic protein and pandemic contacts,
the social distance it in a sort of a form of sybil obedience using a tactic traditionally associated with civil disobedience is kind of a modular protests form,
the site.
Julian tarro of so i do think you could see the diffusion of some of these social distance on,
any other sort of protest practices that still are cautious in walking dead tight rope between.
Charlotte Jöster-Morisse
What was the electric machine neva end beth charity cardinal gave as part of total colloquial on march tenth two thousand twenty one.
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